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The Advocacy Unified Network’s Nepal Policy Watch: A Comprehensive Analysis of Nepal’s Governance System

Nepal Policy Watch is a project by the Advocacy Unified Network that critically analyzes different aspects of the policy-making system in Nepal.




Nepal Policy watch

New Delhi: Building upon its previous policy analysis, the Advocacy Unified Network has just released another comprehensive report on the policy-making system in Nepal on its broadcasting platform. To know more about the governance system of Nepal, you can refer to this comprehensive analysis by Advocacy Unified Network titled Nepal Policy Watch.’ The report analyzes all aspects of the policy-making process with an overview of the political history and structure of government, followed by the analysis of laws, networks, and institutions governing the national economy, corruption, and federalism, among others. It also provides recommendations to improve the current system and some suggestions on how it could be further developed in the future. The analysis covers all aspects necessary to understand Nepal’s current governance system and includes several infographics for better understanding. The Chairman of Advocacy Unified Network, Arindam Bhattacharya, said, “‘Nepal Policy Watch’ is part of our country-specific policy analysis process.

The journey started in South Africa, and currently, five projects are running simultaneously. In addition to accessing sorted-out specific information at a single location by AUN’s stakeholders, this initiative will help anyone interested in research where citations are required about these countries’ policy matters.”


The Advocacy Unified Network (AUN) is an international public policy research and advocacy organization headquartered in The Hague. The organization came up once again with a crucial project named Nepal Policy Watch, where they critically analyzed different aspects of the policy-making system in Nepal, including governance, politics, socio-economic status, Nepali culture, geopolitics, and international relations. This publication provides a comprehensive overview of the main findings of the Nepal Policy Watch project. The journal covers the socio- economic status of Nepal, its political instability, its geopolitics, its international relations, and politics. It also covers its political parties, corruption in Nepal, as well as other factors that are related to public policy and governance in Nepal.

Political Environment

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Nepal is a small landlocked country between two giants, India and China. Due to its location, Nepal has been influenced by both countries throughout its history. Observers can witness this in Nepal’s art and culture, a mix of Indian and Tibetan influences. The political environment of Nepal is also influenced by its geopolitics. For many years, Nepal was under the rule of the Rana dynasty, which British India supported. This changed in 1950 when India and Nepal signed a treaty that allowed for greater autonomy for Nepal. Since then, there have been many changes in Nepal’s political landscape, with several different political parties emerging. However, the instability caused by these political parties has led to a period of political unrest in recent years. In April 2015, Nepal experienced its most significant change since independence from British rule in 1951. The Nepali Congress party came into power with Sushil Koirala as Prime Minister. Still, this government lasted only until October 2015, when protests erupted after Khadga Prasad Oli was elected Prime Minister. These protests were fueled by the Madhesi people who live on Nepal’s southern border with India and felt their voices were not being heard during negotiations about the new Constitution. Although demonstrations subsided after Kathmandu valley-based parties agreed to discuss their demands (mainly about proportionate representation), they resurfaced again in August 2016 because of a new constitution passed by Parliament on September 16th that didn’t give enough representation to Madhesis.

Nepali Constitution

Nepal’s Constitution was created in 2015 after the country had been through years of political instability. The document is meant to lay the groundwork for how the country should be governed and provide stability in the future. However, since its inception, several amendments and changes have been made. Political parties in Nepal are varied and ever- changing, making it difficult to create lasting change. And because of Nepal’s location, geopolitics plays a significant role in the country’s international relations. Still, the Constitution is an important step forward for Nepal. It provides a foundation on which they can build their government while still being flexible enough to accommodate future changes.

Political Parties

To understand Nepal’s current state of affairs, it is essential first to understand the political parties involved. Nepal’s two main political parties are the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) and the Nepali Congress. The Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist- Leninist) is a left-wing party founded in 1991. The Nepali Congress is a centrist party that was founded in 1947. Both parties have been involved in numerous political controversies and have been accused of corruption. Nepal has also suffered from frequent periods of instability, which has resulted in a series of short-lived governments being formed over the past three decades. Nepal also suffers geographic challenges due to its location between China and India. China’s presence in Nepal is increasing as they invest billions into projects such as railway networks and hydropower plants. China’s involvement has become prominent since their plans for a strategic road connecting Tibet with Kathmandu became public knowledge. There is speculation that this project will only help strengthen Nepal’s geopolitical dependency on China, limit Nepal’s ability to engage in international trade freely, and allow Chinese authorities to monitor Nepal’s borders more easily. Nepal faces similar challenges with neighboring India as well, who, despite having invested more than any other country in the country, continues to view Nepal as a geopolitical buffer zone.

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Media and Communications

Since its inception, the Advocacy Unified Network (AUN) has been a critical voice in international public policy research and advocacy. In 2022, the organization shifted its focus to Nepal, launching the Nepal Policy Watch project. The project comprehensively analyzes Nepal’s governance system, including politics, geopolitics, and international relations. The project has successfully highlighted the issues and challenges facing Nepal’s policy-making process. Moreover, it has proposed possible solutions that could be implemented to mitigate these challenges and ensure Nepal’s stability. Some of these proposed solutions include strengthening democratic institutions, reforming governance structures, decentralizing power, and empowering civil society organizations. According to experts, Nepal is at a crucial crossroads with both internal and external actors playing an essential role in determining Nepal’s future. With Nepal’s political instability still unresolved, Nepali citizens need more than ever for Nepalis international organizations such as Advocacy Unified Network to champion their interests by pressuring policymakers to take actions that will improve their quality of life.

Judicial Framework

About judicial framework, there is a Supreme Court headed by a Chief Justice who holds office until they reach the age of 65 or resigns. They can be removed only on the grounds of physical or mental incapacity. They appoint judges to various courts and assign benches as necessary. Below this apex court is the appellate court called the High Court, which consists of 27 judges appointed by the President from among persons possessing qualifications prescribed in Section 154(1)(b), (c), and (d) of the Constitution 2017. These qualifications include being a lawyer qualified to practice before any court in Nepal for at least ten years; holding any judicial office including appointment as District Judge; being enrolled as an advocate before any bar council for at least ten years; practicing as a legal adviser for one year before coming into force of this Constitution 2018.

Budgetary Frameworks

Nepal has adopted many economic policies and free trade agreements that exist in international relations. These agreements may seem more beneficial for Nepal at first glance, but what happens when Nepal becomes trapped within them? The reality is that countries can no longer choose one side or another without risking long-term implications for their economy. Thus, policymakers need to develop strategies that help them maintain independence while maintaining healthy ties with other countries. But this will not happen until Nepal’s leaders understand the realities of geopolitics and how they affect politics in Nepal. These factors have created a highly complex governance system critically analyzed through this Nepal Policy Watch project.

A Critical Analysis by AUN

Nepal Policy Watch is a project by the Advocacy Unified Network that critically analyzes different aspects of the policy-making system in Nepal. In particular, they have looked at Nepal’s governance, politics, and international relations. This is essential work because Nepal is a country that has been plagued by political instability and geopolitical turmoil. The Advocacy Unified Network’s Nepal Policy Watch is a comprehensive and well-researched analysis of Nepal’s governance system. It is an essential resource for anyone interested in understanding Nepal’s complex issues.